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Triumph of Railroad Engineering, Architecture and Construction ^ 

In bringing its tracks into the very heart of the retail- business district 
of New York City, close to the great hotels and theatres of the metropolis, 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company has wrought a great triumph of rail- 
road engineering at a special outlay of $90,000,000, entirely apart 
from the cost of the Hudson River (McAdoo) Tunnels. The problem 
was not to spring a bridge over the mile- wide Hudson River — shipping for- 
bade that comparatively simple linking of the city to the continent. It" was 
underneath the river that the engineers sought ingress to the city, and 
in place of stable rock they encountered shifting silt. But great steel shields 
were forced forward by hydraulic power from shafts at either end, cast-iron 
and concrete lined the twin-bores, steel pillars were sunk to bed-rock to 
support the tubes, and now the Pennsylvania has two tracks right into the 
centre of New York City — the great metropolis that dominates America. 



SEE BACK COVER 



Cbe Pennsylvania Railroad Tunnels 



By WILLIAM WIRT MILLS 



ENTRANCE of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road into New York City was first pro- 
posed by Alexander J. Cassatt, president 
of the company, in his annual report to the 
stockholders in March, 1901, when he said: 
" Your interests, as well as the convenience 
of the public, require the extension of your line 
into New York, and the establishment of a 
centrally located passenger-station in that city, 
through which the inconvenience and delays 
of the transfer by ferry will be avoided." 

Mr. Cassatt and Samuel Rea, third vice- 
president, took up the problem and on Dec. 
12 of the same year the company announced 
its plans to establish all-rail connection be- 
tween its lines in New Jersey and Long Island, 
through the heart of New York by means 
of the most daring scheme of tunnels. 

A year was occupied by negotiations for the 
franchise, which was signed by Mayor Low 
on Dec. 22, 1902, and on June 10, 1903, 
construction was begun and pushed with such 
energy and with so few set-backs that the 
twin Hudson River tubes were completed in 
1907, two of the four East River tunnels 
were finished in February, 1908, and the 
entire system will, be in operation in 1908. 

This 15-mile link overcomes the insularity 
cf Manhattan and unites the 10,978 miles of 
Pennsylvania Railroad tracks with the lines 
on Long Island and by the New York Con- 
necting R. R. with the tracks of the New 
York, New Haven and Hartford system. 

Leaving the present Pennsylvania main line 
at Harrison, N. J., the tracks cross the 
Hackensack river and meadows and enter the 
tunnels at Bergen Hill (p. 5), not coming out 
again upon the level until they reach the great 
Sunnyside terminal yards at Thompson Ave., 
Long Island City, a mile east of East River. 

There are two tunnels under Bergen Hill 
and the Hudson River ( pp. 4 and 7 ) , the dis- 
tance between the centres of the tubes under 
the river being 37 feet. These tunnels con- 
tinue under Manhattan to the entrance to the 
depressed station-yard at 10th Avenue. This 
work from the West Portal at Bergen Hill to 
9th Avenue is under the direction of Charles 
M. Jacobs, chief engineer, and James Forgie, 
chief assistant engineer. Between Bergen Hill 
and Harrison, A. C. Shand, chief engineer 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad, has charge. 

In the great yard between 9th and 8th 
Aves., 60 feet below the surface, the two 
tracks multiply to 21 and pass through the 

Copyright, 1908, 



station (p. 15) at a depth of 40 ft.; at 7th 
Ave. the tracks, converging into six, enter 
three-track tunnels, one under 3 2d St. and 
one under 33d; near 6th Ave., at a depth cf 
75 ft. , these tunnels change from two wide 
arches to two twin arches, carrying four tracks 
to 1st Ave., where they enter four separate 
tubes which extend under the East River, a 
distance of 3,916 ft.; near the Long Island 
shore the tunnels begin to converge and they 
meet in an open cut (p. 16) that leads into 
the Sunnyside yards at Thompson Ave. , 2.85 
miles from the station entrance in Seventh 
Ave. Alfred Noble is chief engineer for all 
work east of 9th Ave., with Charles L. 
Harrison as chief assistant engineer. 

Including 16 miles of tracks in the central 
station and yards, there will be 31.70 miles of 
track between the Jersey Portal at Bergen Hill 
and the terminal yard at Sunnyside, L. I. City. 

All the trains will be operated by electricity 
furnished from power houses in Long Island 
City and at Harrison, N. J., planned and built 
by Westinghouse, Church, Kerr&Co., under 
the direction of George Gibbs, chief engineer 
of electric traction. 

The entire work has been prosecuted under 
the general direction of Vice-President Rea, 
with the advice of a board of consulting en- 
gineers consisting of Brig. Gen. C. W. Ray- 
mond, U. S. A., chairman, and Messrs. 
Jacobs, Noble and Gibbs. During the period 
in which the project was reduced to a work- 
ing basis, Wm. H. Brown, chief engineer of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, and Gustav Lin- 
denthal, Bridge Commissioner of New York 
City, were members of the board. 

Closely related to the vast tunnel and sta- 
tion enterprise is the New York Connecting 
Railway, which will carry trains from the tun- 
nels through to New England and give the 
N, Y., New Haven & Hartford access to 
Pennsylvania station at 7th Ave. This $15,- 
000,000 improvement, including the Hell 
Gate Bridge (p. 17), twelve miles of railroad 
and four great freight terminals, will furnish 
a route for the Pennsylvania's New England 
and Long Island freight by means of car-floats 
across New York Bay to Greenville, N. J. 

The portion of the Pennsylvania tracks 
from Harrison to Jersey City, relieved by the 
diversion of the large part of the main line 
heavy traffic through the tunnels, will be used 
for a surburban service through the McAdoo 
tubes to Cortlandt St., Manhattan f pp. 1 8-23 ), 
by Moses King 



fcx ICtbrtB 



SEYMOUR DURST 



SAMUEL REA, 3d v. p. P.R.R.; JAMES M'CREA, Pres. P.R.R.; CHAS. E. PUGH, 2d 
v.p. P.R.R.; CHARLES M. JACOBS, designer tunnels and ch. eng.; ALEX. J. CASSATT, 
late Pres. P. R. R.; JOHN P. GREEN', 1st v.p.; JAMES FORGIE, ch. asst. eng. N. Riv. 
Div.; WM. H. BROWN, bd. of eng. ; J. T. RICHARDS, ch. eng. maintenance of way. 



WEEH AWKEN SHAFT, 100x154ft. at top; 56x116ft. at bottom; 76 ft. deep; lined with 
9,810 cu. ft. concrete; begun June II, '03, finished Sept. 1, '04. Manhattan Shaft, 22x32 
ft. 5 55 ft. deep; begun June IO, 03; finished Dec. n. Built by United Eng. & Con. Co. 




CROSS SECTION PENNA. TUNNELS, trains running in tubes through silt bottom ui 
Hudson, 4,432 ft. wide, 53 ft. deep; maximum depth bottom of tubes, 97 ft.; built by shields, 
air pressure, 15 to 3 7 lbs. sq. in.; north tube lining completed Oct. 9, '06, south, Nov. 18, '06. 




JUNCTION OF SOUTH TUBES, building last rings, Nov. 14, '06; bores made by driving 
1 1 3-ton steel shield with 24 hydraulic rams exerting forward pressure of 6,000,000 lbs. Weight 
of shield and machinery, 193 tons. EMERGENCY AIR-LOCK for refuge in case of flooding. 



LINING AND WATERPROOFING rock section under Manhattan after excavation. 
LAYING DUCTS for electric power and light wires to carry the 105,000 electrical 
norse-power which will be required to move the trains and light stations and tunnels. 



EXCAVATING under 9th Ave. "L" for cut through which materials trom station excava- 
tion are carried to scows which are towed to Greenville, N. J., to fill in great freight yard, 
EIGHTH AVENUE, with trolley line supported on tre«tle during work on scation excavation. 




POWER HOUSE, Long Island City, 200x500 ft. with coal tower 170 ft. high; 145,500 
kilowatt generating units, 32 tubular boilers; George Gibbs, chief engineer electric traction. 
LONG ISLAND CITY, emergence of tunnels and connection with Long Island RR. system. 




HELL GATE BRIDGE, four tracks; massive granite abutments surrounded by concrete towers; 
220 fc. high; steel arch span, 1,000 ft. long; 135 ft. above water; with viaduct approaches, 
longest and heaviest bridge in the world; 80,000 tons. Gustav Lindenthal, Cons. Eng. & Arch. 



F)udson "Cimnel System 



IT WAS as long ago as 1871 that the 
tunnelling of the Hudson River was pro- 
posed by D. C. Haskin, who conceived 
the idea that iron cylinders, fitted with air- 
locks, placed horizontally below water-level, 
could be used with compressed air in tunnel 
construction. In November, 1 8 74, he began, 
from a shaft sunk in Jersey City, to construct 
the first tunnel through the silt that forms 
the bottom of the Hudson River, and had 
reached a point about 1,200 feet from the 
shore, when, on July 21, 1880, a blow-out 
caused the loss of 20 1 ves and stopped the work. 

In 1888 the project was revived, but the 
work stopped in 1892, with 3,000 feet of 
brick-lined tunnel completed. In 1902 Wm. 
G. McAdoo organized the New York and 
New Jersey Railroad Co., adopted the plan 
of building steel tubes, cut through the first 
tunnels under the Hudson, the headings of 
the north tube meeting on March 8, 1904, 
and south tube on Sept. 29,' 1905. 

These tunnels, which are 5,600 feet long, 
extend from 15th St. , Jersey City, to Morton 
St., New York, and are being continued 
under Greenwich and Christopher Sts. and 
6th Ave. to 33d St., with a spur across 9th 
St. to connection with Subway at Astor Place. 

Another pair of tubes is being built by the 
Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Co. from 
Cortlandt and Fulton Sts., New York, to 
Montgomery St., Jersey City, with an exten- 
sion of three-quarters of a mile to a con- 
nection with the Pennsylvania R. R. elevated 
tracks at Brunswick St. A transverse tunnel 
a mile and a quarter long through Jersey City 
and Hoboken, under the tracks of the Penn- 
sylvania, Erie and Lackawanna Railroads, with 
entrances to the station of each road, will 
connect the two sets of tunnels. 

Not only has Mr. McAdoo carried practi- 
cally to completion in six years an enterprise 
that had dragged along unsuccessfully for 
thirty years, but he has greatly enlarged its 
scope, completing a system of 15 miles of 
underground railway, including four tubes 
under the Hudson whose total length is 
23,256 feet, or 4.4 miles. * 

Where the northerly bores cross the river 
is 5,500 feet wide and the distance between 
the shafts is 5,650 feet, the maximum depth 
of the water, 60 feet; maximum depth of 
bottom of tube, 97 feet. 

The southerly tubes, begun in January, 
1906, will be 5,978 feet long, and will have 
a maximum depth of 92 feet. This work is 
being rabidly finished in 1908. 



Charles M. Jacobs, the Pennsylvania tun- 
nel builder, is chief engineer, with J. Vipond 
Davies, as chief assistant, in direct charge. 

Both companies are controlled by the Hud- 
son Companies, Walter G. Oakman presi- 
dent, and are financed by the banking house 
of Harvey Fisk & Sons. 

Through these tunnels, which are 1 5 ft. 3 
in. in diameter, high speed electric trains will 
be run from Newark to the Church. St Ter- 
minal in 15 minutes; the passage under the 
river, from the present Penna. station in 
Jersey City, will take three minutes. 

From Newark, through the transverse tun- 
nel and the northerly tubes, to 33d St. and 
6th Ave., Manhattan, will occupy 29 min- 
utes; from Hoboken, 19 minute\ The 
portion of the system between Hoboken and 
19th St., Manhattan, was opened to travel 
by President Roosevelt, February 25, 1908. 

Eight-car trains are operated on a headway 
of 1 ]/ 2 minutes during the rush hours, pro- 
viding seats for 16,000 passengers an hour. 
The cars have side doors as well as entrances 
at both ends, all operated by compressed air, 
and at the terminals the trains stop between 
broad, parallel platforms, so that passengers 
can be discharged from one side and admitted 
from the other, avoiding the chief cause of con- 
gestion and delays in the municipal subway oper- 
ated by the Interborough Rapid Transit Co. 

At Harrison, where the Hudson Compa- 
nies' trains will start, when the entire system 
is in operation in 1909, there will be a great 
transfer station, where all the trains of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad will stop, and which 
will be the focus of the various lines of the 
Public Service Corporation, which has 640 
miles of street railways in Newark, Elizabeth, 
and the other north Jersey cities and towns. 

The Church St. Terminal will be the 
heart of underground transit in New York, 
tor from this station, without at any time 
going from under cover, a passenger will be 
able to go by the municipal subway either to 
the Grand Central Station or to the Flatbush 
Station of the Long Island Railroad, by the 
McAdoo tubes to the Pennsylvania, Erie, or 
Lackawanna Stations in Jersey City, or to 
the Pennsylvania Station at Harrison, or by 
the elevators to either the 6th Ave. or the 
9th Ave. elevated lines. 

At 33d St. and 6th Ave. the Hudson 
Companies will have another large terminal, 
on the site of the Manhattan Theatre, with 
connection with the Pennsylvania Station at 
7th Ave. 




E. F. C. YOUNG, ANTHONY N. BRADY, E. H. GARY, directors Hudson & Manhattan RR. 
J. VIPOND DAVIES, assistant to Eng'r Jacobs. W. G. M' ADOO, president. SIR WEETMAN 
D. PEARSON, S. Pearson & Son, contractors for M'Adoo tubes and Penna.-East River tunnels. 
C F. McKIM and WM. R. MEAD, architects P.RR. C.W. CLINTON, architect H.R.Term. 



HUDSON COMPANIES TRAIN, under Hudson from 6th Av. & 19th St. to Hoboken. 
MORTON ST. TUBES, subway from Sixth Ave. entering twin tunnels under the Hudson 
at Morton and West Sts., trains descending to a depth of 95 ft. below mean high water. 




M'ADOO TUNNEL; Morton St. tube, opened Feb. 25, '08; Cortlandt St. tubes under way. 
M'ADOO TERMINAL, 6th Ave. and 33d St.; Penna. tunnels on lowest level, proposed 
municipal subway; M'Adoo subway terminus; surface lines; 6th Ave. "L" and bridge over"L." 




CHL RCH ST. TERMINAL, largest and heaviest building in city j 200,000 tons, including 
24,000 tons structural steel, 37,500 tons concrete, 16,300,000 bricks, 4,500 tons terra 
cotta, 120,000 sq. ft. glass, 140 miles of pipe, 113 miles wiring, 39 electric elevators, 22 stories, 
275 ft. above curb; entire structure, 18,150,000 cubic ft. Clinton S: Russell, Architects. 




Cbc Ingenious Construction of 
Hudson River funnels 

NEW problems were met and solved in the building of the tunnels under 
the Hudson and East Rivers — problems considerably more difficult than 
those encountered in any of the eight small tunnels under the Thames at 
London, or in the 6,000 ft. bore under the St. Clair River connecting Port Huron 
with Sarnia in Canada, all of "which were constructed by the shield method. 

In each of these cases the tunnel was driven through clay, or sand, or gravel, 
and onlv moderately high air-pressures were necessary to prevent the water oozing 
into the tube, but in boring under the rivers that gird Manhattan, the builders 
encountered a very soft mud, unstable and treacherous, and besides using air pres- 
sures as high as 39 lbs. per sq. in. above the normal, they had to resort to num- 
erous devices to prevent this Hudson silt from engulfing the workers and machinery. 

A special type of shield was devised by Chief Engineer Jacobs and Assistant 
Engineer Forgie, builder of tunnels under the Thames, London. Before the bore 
entered the silt a concrete bulkhead, 10 ft. thick, was v erected in the rock section 
ot the tunnel. This was pierced with three air-locks, those for passing materials 
into the shield-chamber and for the admission of the workers being cn a lower 
level, and the emergency air-lock near the top of the tube. 

Within the chamber formed by this bulkhead the shield was erected — a steel 
structure, 23 feet 6^ inches in diameter and 15 feet 11% inches long, with nine 
pockets, three on lower level, four in midsection, two at top. 

From the pockets sliding platforms were pushed forward into the silt, under 
a movable hood that could be projected 25 inches forward of the cutting edge of 
the shield. On the platforms the " sand hogs " worked at the silt, passing the 
excavated material back through the pockets into the shield-chamber, and as thev 
cleared the way the shield was pushed forward by hydraulic rams. 

On the chamber side of the shield was another hood or "skin" of steel- 
plates, extending back 6 ft. 4 in., to hold up silt while cast-iron lining was being put in. 

In each of the tunnels different difficulties were encountered. While the 
Pennsylvania tubes went from shore to shore, under the Hudson, through silt, 
the McAdoo north tubes encountered rock, and blasting had to be resorted to; in 
the East River tunnels the top of the bores came so close tc the river bottom that 
blankets of clay had to be placed in the water over the place of^the boring. 

But the most remarkable feature of the construction of these tunnels is the 
scheme bv which thev have been converted into sub-aqueous bridges. 

In lining the vjnnels, on the bottom centre line, a cast-steel shoe or plug 
2 feet 7 inches in diameter was inserted every fifteen feet. On this was screwed 
a 7-foot tube of the same diameter, made of steel, 1 ^ inches thick, and this was 
forced down into the silt by a hydraulic ratchet until it was flush with the inner 
bottom of the tube; then another 7-foot section was screwed to it and forced down, 
and this was continued until a hollow steel column had been constructed and 
forced down 10 feet or 100 feet, as might be, until the steel shoe was firmly- 
planted on bed-rock. Then the hollow column was cut off flush with the inner 
lining and filled with concrete. 

Thus a series of steel and concrete foundations in the river form a bridge 
carrying the tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad under the river within the tube, 
which in turn was strengthened by a lining of two feet of concrete, held in solid 
miss and running from shore to shore, affording a solid structure in which heavy 
express-trains can be moved with safety at high speed, at the rate of a train every 
two minutes. William Wirt Mills,